Difference between Anthropology, Sociology, Psychology, Ethnography and Archeology

Key Difference: Anthropology is the study of humanity that focuses on the culture, behavior and biology and the effect of changing time on them. Sociology is the branch of study that specifically deals with the society. It consists of studies related to the class, race, ethnicity, gender, family, education and religion. Psychology is related to the study of the human mind and human behavior. Ethnography is described as a branch of anthropology that deals with the scientific description of culture and cultural processes. Archaeology deals with the studies of ancient art, customs and science through the process of recovery and analysis of things left behind.

Anthropology deals with the study of human beings from all over the world. It describes and analyses the evolutionary history related to them. Apart from this, it considers various attributes, like how people behave, how they adapt to various environments, how people communicate and socialize with each other, etc. In a nutshell, anthropology is all about humanity in its total varied forms.

Sociology is based on the phrase “No man is an island”, as it deals with the social relationships and institutions of humans. However, the flavor of sociology may belong to any category like crime, religion, family, state, etc. It is an enriched field of study involved in understanding the key social processes.

Psychology is based on the science of mental processes and behaviors. Mind is a very complex entity to understand and study. Thoughts, emotions, memories, dreams, etc. are all in invisible forms, thus it is very difficult to understand and analyze these abstract things. Human behavior is treated as the evidence or as an indication to depict the functionality of the brain.

Ethnography is the systematic study of the customs of people and cultures. It is considered as a branch of anthropology. It provides a detailed description of social life and culture belonging to a particular society. It is categorized into the study involved in the beliefs, social interactions and behaviors of small societies.

Archaeology deals with the study of ancient times. It provides an insight of the ancient times by analyzing the remained materials belonging to that time. It is considered to be a subfield of anthropology. It aims to preserve the history for present and future learning. Prehistory is known by the artifacts of the prehistoric people which they left behind.

Comparison between anthropology, sociology, psychology, ethnography and archaeology:

Anthropology

Sociology

Psychology

Ethnography

Archeology

Anthropology deals with the study of human beings from all over the world. It describes and analyses the evolutionary history related to them.

Sociology is based on the phrase “No man is an island”, as it deals with the social relationships and institutions of humans.

Psychology is based on the science of mental processes and behaviors. Mind is a very complex entity to understand and study.

Ethnography is the systematic study of customs of peoples and cultures. It is considered a branch of anthropology.

Archeology deals with the study of ancient times. It provides an insight of the ancient times by analyzing the remained materials belonging to that time.

Biological – focused on the study of humans and non-human primates in various dimensions.

Sociocultural – consists of cultural and social anthropology

Archaeological – Study of the ancient times through remained materials.

Linguistic – focuses on understanding the process of human communications that can be either verbal or non-verbal.

 

Sociology is subdivided into various specialized fields-

 

Applied sociology

Collective behavior

Community

Comparative sociology

Crime and delinquency

Cultural sociology

Demography

Deviant behavior

Formal and complex organizations

Human ecology

Industrial sociology

Law and society

Marriage and Family

Medical sociology

Military sociology

Political sociology

Sociology of Religion

Urban sociology

Social psychology

Social control

Rural sociology

Sociological theory

Sociology of Education

Behavioral Neuroscience

Clinical Psychology

Cognitive Psychology

Counseling

Developmental Disabilities

Developmental Psychology

Forensic Psychology

Health Psychology

Psycholinguistics

Neuropsychology

Educational and School Psychology

Concurrent Ethnography - design is influenced by an on-going ethnographic study.

Quick and dirty Ethnography - in which brief ethnographic studies are undertaken to provide a general but informed sense of the setting for designers.

Evaluative Ethnography - A study is undertaken to verify or validate a set of already formulated design decisions.

Re-examination of previous studies - in which previous studies are re-examined to inform initial design thinking.

Archaeometry - Artifact analysis, remote sensing, and radiocarbon dating like techniques are used in this field.

Underwater Archeology - underwater evidences are associated with it.

Classical – study of more civilized societies.

Environmental – the principles of the subject are applied to the study of environment.

Pseudo – a non-scientiic approach is used.

Ethno – focuses on creating connection between the past and the present.

Historical – pertaining to the ancient historical sites.

 

Greek anthrōpos "man" (understood to mean humankind or humanity), and -logia, "word" or "study."

Latin and Greek origins. The Latin word: socius, "companion"; the suffix -logy, "the study of" from Greek -λογία from λόγος, lógos, "word", "knowledge".

Greek containing two Greek roots. Psyche meaning "mind" and logos meaning "study".

French word ethnographic, from ethno - (people, cultural group) + -graphie – graphy (writing or representation is a specific manner).

Greek archaiologia – "ancient" and logia "word" or "study."

Famous Anthropologists include John Adair- famous for his work on visual anthropology and Keith Basso- known for his study of the Western Apaches.

Max Weber - known for his modern sociology.

Emile Durkheim- pioneer in French sociology.

B.F. Skinner – an eminent psychologists of the 20th century.

Albert Bandura – work in the field of cognitive revolution in psychology.

Adolf Bastian – known for his contribution in the development of anthropology as a discipline.

Henryk Oskar – known for his work on folk traditions from Polish regions.

Leslie Alcock- His major excavations include Dinas Powys hill fort in Wales and Cadbury Castle in Somerset.

Anthony Aveni- known for his contributions to the field of archaeoastronomy.

Image Courtesy: anthropology.utoronto.ca, davcollegemzn.org, nctc.edu, learnlogic.net, suu.edu

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