Difference between Binary Fission and Fragmentation

Key Difference: In biology, Binary Fission and Fragmentation, both are known as forms of 'asexual reproduction'. Binary fission is the splitting of one cell into two, and while conjunction is the same, it also involves exchanging DNA between two organisms. Fragmentation is the process of breaking off a piece of organism followed by mitosis cell division.

In biology, fission is the subdivision of a cell or a multi-cellular body into one or more parts and the regeneration of each of the parts into a complete individual. It is a simple mitotic division in which each new cell receives half of the cytoplasm of the original cell. The line of cytoplasmic may be either miscellaneous or longitudinal. Examples include Protista, Monera, etc. Binary fission produces two split cells, populations, species, etc., whereas, multiple fission produces more than two cells, populations, species, etc. Prokaryotic fission, which is binary fission, is a form of asexual reproduction and cell division used by all prokaryotes.

Fragmentation is the process of the division of a piece of organism, afterwhich each part differentiates into a full-sized organism. Some helminthes, annelids experience fragmentation. Fragmentation is basically a form of asexual reproduction, where an organism is split into fragments. The splitting might or might not be deliberate. Each of these fragments develop into mature, grown up individuals that are a replica of the original organism. If the organism is split any further, the process is continual. Fragmentation is caused by mitosis. Meiosis is not involved in fragmentation.

Fragmentation may also be used in some other contexts such as music, technology, science, economy, sociology, etc.

Comparison between Binary Fission and Fragmentation:


Binary Fission



Binary fission is the asexual reproduction of a single-celled organism by division into two roughly equal parts.

Fragmentation is the process of the division of a piece of organism, followed by mitosis cell division.

Also known as

Prokaryotic fission

Clonal fragmentation


Fission occurs in uni-cellular organisms.

Fragmentation occurs in multi cellular organisms with simple body organization.




Image Courtesy: micro.cornell.edu, excellup.com

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