Difference between Private Law and Public Law

Key Difference: Private law is a segment of law that governs the relationships and disputes between the private citizens of the country. This branch is responsible for regulating the peace between the citizens of the state, including private companies. Public law is a segment of law that governs the relationship between individuals and the state. This branch is responsible for regulating and maintaining the peace between the citizens and the state or government.

There are various different kinds of laws that are available to distinguish between the different aspects of government. These terms are often confusing for people that are not well-versed with legal words and terminologies. Private law and public law are terms that are used to distinguish between theories of law.

Private law is a segment of law that governs the relationships and disputes between the private citizens of the country. This branch is responsible for regulating the peace between the citizens of the state, including private companies. Private law deals with disputes between two private citizens or between private companies and private citizens. In common law jurisdictions, private law has a broader coverage. It also covers private relationships between governments and private individuals or other entities. Private law is also known as Civil Law and covers areas such as: Contract law or law of obligations, Law of torts, Property Law, Commercial Law, Competition Law, Family Law, Labor Law and Corporations law.

Public law is a segment of law that governs the relationship between individuals and the state. This branch is responsible for regulating and maintaining the peace between the citizens and the state or government. In some cases, the public statutes are also known as law of the public order, as breaking any of these statutes results in the criminal offence. Public law is important in regulating the peace among the country and its citizens. Breaking a private law is considered as a criminal offence and can result in the defendant being incarcerated. Pub law includes Constitutional Law, Administrative Law, Criminal Law, Municipal Law and International Law.

In short, private law is considered as civil law and deals with regulating the disputes between two individuals, while public law regulates the dispute between a person and the state. The person acquitted of committing a felony is challenged by the state and the state becomes responsible with trying to find evidence and acquitting the person. 

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