Difference between Fructose, Glucose, Lactose, Maltose and Sucrose

Key Difference: Glucose and Fructose are monosaccharides, whereas Lactose, Maltose and Sucrose are disaccharides. Glucose is classified as an aldehyde, whereas fructose as a ketone. Two glucose units are combined to form Maltose. Sucrose is formed by combination of Fructose and Glucose. Lactose consists of Galactose and Glucose.

Carbohydrates play a vital role as they provide energy to cells in the body. Dietary carbohydrates can be broadly classified into various categories based on the number of sugar units present in them. Monosaccharide consists of one sugar unit, whereas Disaccharide consists of two sugar units. Glucose and Fructose fall in the category of monosaccharide, whereas Sucrose, Lactose and Maltose are types of Disaccharide. Monosaccharides are known as building blocks from which all other big carbohydrates are made.

Glucose and Fructose are common sugars and possess the same molecular formula : C6H12O6. They contain six atoms of carbon and therefore are also known to be a hexose. Glucose is the ‘blood sugar’. It is also known as –glucose, dextrose or grape sugar. Glucose and Fructose possess the same molecular formula. However, they differ in the arrangements of atoms in their structure and therefore are also termed as structural isomers of each other. Fructose is found in fruit, honey, etc.

Glucose is an aldehyde which means that it a compound which contains a carbonyl group with at least one hydrogen attached to it. On the other hand, fructose is a ketone, which means that it is a compound which contains a carbonyl group with two hydrocarbon groups attached to it. 

Lactose is made from the combination of galactose and glucose units. It is the major carbohydrate which is found in milk. D-glucose and D-galactose are joined in a ß-1,4-glycosidic linkage in Lactose. The chemical formula of lactose is C12H22O11. It is a readily digestible source of glucose which is capable of providing energy for the neonate. In case the body is not able to digest significant amounts of lactose, the condition is termed as lactose intolerance.

Maltose or Malt sugar is made from combination of two units of glucose which are joined by α bond. It is not commonly found in food items. However, it can be formed from the digestion of starch. The chemical formula of Maltose is C12H22O11 . It can be found in germinating grain, in small proportion in corn syrup, etc.

Sucrose (table sugar, saccharose) is made from the combination of glucose and fructose units. It generally includes the alpha form of D-glucose and the beta form of D-fructose. The formula of table sugar is C12H22O11. It is a type of sugar which is commonly found in plants.

Glucose and Fructose are monosaccharides, whereas Lactose, Maltose and Sucrose are disaccharides. Glucose is classified as an aldehyde, whereas fructose as a ketone. Two glucose units are combined to form Maltose. Sucrose is formed by combination of Fructose and glucose. Lactose consists of Galactose and Glucose.

Comparison between Glucose, Fructose, Lactose, Maltose and Sucrose:

 

Glucose

Fructose

Lactose

Maltose

Sucrose

Definition

It is a simple monosaccharide. It is regarded to be the most common carbohydrate which is required by the cells of the body for energy.

It is a monosaccharide, which is a structural polymer of Glucose.

It is a disaccharide. It is a readily digestible source of glucose which is capable of providing energy for the neonate.

It is a disaccharide. It is not commonly found in food items. However, it can be formed from the digestion of starch.

It is a disaccharide. It is a type of sugar which is commonly found in plants.

 

Molecular Formula

C6H12O6

C6H12O6

C12H22O11

C12H22O11

C12H22O11

Molecular Arrangement

Most of the glucose consists of molecules arranges in a shape of a ring.

It can form a five-membered or six-membered

ring with oxygen in the ring

The galactose and glucose moieties are linked together through a so called beta-(1,4) glucosidic linkage

In maltose, two glucose units are joined by an α-1,4 glycosidic linkage

It involves the use of the alpha form of D-glucose and the beta form of D-fructose.

Word Origin

From Greek word for sweet wine

Latin word for fruit--"fructus"

Latin word for milk--"lact"

French word for "malt”

French word for sugar-"sucre"

Found in

Sap of plants, bloodstream of animals

Many fruits, vegetables, honey

Milk and milk products like cheese and yogurt

Germinating grain, corn syrup

Found in many plants but extracted as ordinary sugar mainly from sugar cane and sugar beets

Image Courtesy: faculty.clintoncc.suny.edu, healthylivinghowto.com

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Comments

For the molecular arrangement, the lactose also has a glycosidic linkage. I think this is what you mean but it is missing the letter y. Just wanted to help :-)

Very informative. I now know why malt is a term used with bread and brewing - thankyou.

It's superb cool

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