Difference between Open Heart Surgery and Closed Heart Surgery

Key Difference: Open heart surgery deals with the structures inside the heart, whereas close heart surgery deals with the structures outside the heart. Unlike an open heart surgery, a heart-lung machine is not required in a closed heart surgery.

Open heart surgery refers to a type of surgery that involves repairing or fixing structures that are located insider the heart. In this type of surgery chest wall is surgically opened and heart is exposed. This surgery is performed on the muscles, valves, or arteries of the heart. The function of the heart during this surgery is conducted by a heart-lung machine. During this surgery, heart beats are temporarily stopped and the demand of oxygen is fulfilled by the heart-lung machine. Special tubes called cannular are placed in the veins as well as in the arteries of the heart. A variant of open heart surgery is known as the beating heart surgery. In this type of surgery, the heart is not stopped from beating.

Closed heart surgery refers to the type of surgery in which heart lung machine or bypass machine is not used. The surgeons work on the structures located in the exterior area of the heart. The heart continues its functions during the surgery. Various surgical operations are done on the basis of this method like – surgery for aoratic contraction, BT interventions and ligation of patent Botallus duct. In this kind of heart surgery chest cavity remains closed and just small incisions are made.

Comparison between Closed and Open Heart Surgery:

 

Closed Heart Surgery

Open Heart Surgery

Definition

Closed heart surgery refers to the type of surgery in which heart lung machine or bypass machine is not used. The surgeons’ works on the structures located in the exterior area of the heart.

Open heart surgery refers to a type of surgery in which the chest wall is surgically opened and heart is exposed. This surgery is performed on the muscles, valves, or arteries of the heart.

Heart lung machine Not Required Required

Location of the scars

Usually on the side of the chest

Usually on the center on the chest

Types

  • Patent Ductus Arteriosus – PDA is about the open vessel that allow the flow of blood between the aorta and the pulmonary artery.
  • Contraction of the Aorta - the aorta is narrowed. The condition may be present sine birth or may have evolved in ate childhood.
  • Blalock-Taussig Shunt - a BT shunt is used to increase the blood flow to the lungs. A gore tex tube is placed by opening the chest through a left or a right thoracotomy approach.
  • On-pump surgery – It uses a heart lung machine to take over the heart’s ob of pumping blood to the organs and tissues.
  • Beating heart or off-pump surgery – Heart rate is slowed with medication or a device
  • Robot assisted surgery – It allows a surgeon to use a special computer to control robotic arms that are capable of performing the surgery.

Time Spent in Hospital

Comparatively shorter

Comparatively longer

Time to recover

Comparatively shorter

Comparatively longer

Image Courtesy: purevolume.com, averaorg.adam.com

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